An Examination of the Inspiration of Muhammad’s Companions


Are Umar and Hassan b. Thabit Among the Prophets?An Examination of the Inspiration of Muhammad’s CompanionsWhat do all of the following verses have in common?Say: 'Whosoever is an enemy to Gabriel -- he it was that brought it down upon thy heart by the leave of God, confirming what was before it, and for a guidance and good tidings to the believers. Whosoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His Messengers, and Gabriel, and Michael - surely God is an enemy to the unbelievers.' S. 2:97-98 ArberryAnd when We appointed the House to be a place of visitation for the people, and a sanctuary, and: 'Take to yourselves Abraham's station for a place of prayer.' And We made covenant with Abraham and Ishmael: 'Purify My House for those that shall go about it and those that cleave to it, to those who bow and prostrate themselves.' S. 2:125 ArberryO believers, enter not the houses of the Prophet, except leave is given you for a meal, without watching for its hour. But when you are invited, then enter; and when you have had the meal, disperse, neither lingering for idle talk; that is hurtful to the Prophet, and he is ashamed before you; but God is not ashamed before the truth. And when you ask his wives for any object, ask them from behind a curtain; that is cleaner for your hearts and theirs. It is not for you to hurt God's Messenger, neither to marry his wives after him, ever; surely that would be, in God's sight, a monstrous thing. S. 33:53 ArberryIt is possible that, if he divorces you, his Lord will give him in exchange wives better than you, women who have surrendered, believing, obedient, penitent, devout, given to fasting, who have been married and virgins too. S. 66:5 ArberryThey did not initially originate from Allah or Muhammad! Many readers, especially Muslims, may be shocked to discover that part of the statements, if not all, of the foregoing verses are actually the words or suggestions of Umar ibn al-Khattab, Muhammad’s close companion and second Caliph. Renowned Muslim exegete Ibn Kathir provides the historical background for these specific texts: Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Jabir, describing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet said, "When the Prophet performed Tawaf, `Umar asked him, `Is this the Maqam of our father?' He said, `Yes.' `Umar said, `Should we take it a place of prayer?' So Allah revealed<And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer.">Al-Bukhari said, "Chapter: Allah's statement…<And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer> meaning, they return to it repeatedly." He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.' The Ayah<And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)> was revealed. I also said, `O Messenger of Allah! The righteous and the wicked enter your house. I wish you would command the Mothers of the believers (the Prophet's wives) to wear Hijab. Allah sent down the Ayah that required the Hijab. And when I knew that the Prophet was angry with some of his wives, I came to them and said, `Either you stop what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger with better women than you are.' I advised one of his wives and she said to me, `O `Umar! Does the Messenger of Allah not know how to advise his wives, so that you have to do the job instead of him.' Allah then revealed<It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you, Muslims (who submit to Allah)>." (66:5)… The Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, one of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded to emulate, moved the stone away from the Ka`bah's wall during his reign. `Umar is one of the two men, whom the Messenger of Allah described when he said…<<Imitate the two men who will come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar.>>`Umar was also the person whom the Qur'an agreed with regarding praying next to Maqam of Ibrahim. This is why none among the Companions rejected it when he moved it. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir:; bold and underline emphasis ours)This is what he wrote regarding Q. 66:5:… Muslim also recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said to him, "When Allah's Messenger stayed away from his wives, I entered the Masjid and found people striking the ground with pebbles. They said, `Allah's Messenger has divorced his wives.' That occurred before Hijab was commanded. I said to myself, `I must investigate this news today.''' So he mentioned the Hadith in which he went to `A'ishah and Hafsah and admonished them. He then said, `I went in and found Rabah, the servant of Allah's Messenger, sitting on a window sill. I called, `O Rabah, seek permission for me from Allah's Messenger.’" He then mentioned the story as we mentioned above. `Umar continued, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, what trouble do you feel from your wives If you have divorced them, verily Allah is with you, His angels, Jibril, Mikal, I, Abu Bakr and the rest of believers are with you.' Often, when I talked, all praise is due to Allah, I hoped that Allah would testify to the words that I uttered. And so the Ayat of option was revealed. Allah said…<Maybe his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him in your place wives better than you,> and…<but if you help one another against him, then verily, Allah is his Protector, and Jibril, and the righteous among the believers; and after that the angels are his helpers.> I said, `Messenger of Allah, have you divorced them?' He said, `No.' I stood at the door of the Masjid and called out at the top of my voice, `The Messenger of Allah has not divorced his wives.' It was on this occasion that this Ayah was revealed…<When any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes to them, they broadcast it; whereas, if they would refer it to the Messenger and those who have been entrusted with authority among them, those of them who are engaged in obtaining intelligence would indeed know (what to do with) it.> (4:83) It was I who understood (and properly investigated) this matter." … Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, "`Umar said, `The wives of the Prophet were all jealous for his affection, and I said to them…<Maybe his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him instead of you, wives better than you.> Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed.’" We mentioned before that `Umar said statements that were confirmed by the Qur'an, such as about the revelation about Hijab [see 33:53] and the captive idolators after the battle of Badr [see 8:67]. `Umar's suggestion to take the Station of Ibrahim as a place for prayer and Allah revealed this Ayah…<And take you the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.> (2:125) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Anas said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I heard news that the Mothers of the faithful had a dispute with the Prophet . So I advised them, saying, `Either stop bothering Allah's Messenger or Allah might provide him better wives than you.’"… Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, "`Umar said, `The wives of the Prophet were all jealous for his affection, and I said to them…<Maybe his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him instead of you, wives better than you.> Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed.’" We mentioned before that `Umar said statements that were confirmed by the Qur'an, such as about the revelation about Hijab [see 33:53] and the captive idolators after the battle of Badr [see 8:67]. `Umar's suggestion to take the Station of Ibrahim as a place for prayer and Allah revealed this Ayah<And take you the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.> (2:125) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Anas said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I heard news that the Mothers of the faithful had a dispute with the Prophet. So I advised them, saying, `Either stop bothering Allah's Messenger or Allah might provide him better wives than you.’" Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, Abu Malik, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi, and others. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir:; bold and underline emphasis ours)Lest Muslims call into question the historical veracity of Ibn Kathir’s citations, here is what al-Bukhari said regarding Umar’s influence on the "revelation" of the Quran:Narrated ‘Umar (bin Al-Khattab): My Lord agreed with me in three things: 1. I said, "O Allah's Apostle, I wish we took the station of Abraham as our praying place (for some of our prayers). So came the Divine Inspiration: And take you (people) the station of Abraham as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers e.g. two Rakat of Tawaf of Ka'ba)." (2.125) 2. And as regards the (verse of) the veiling of the women, I said, "O Allah's Apostle! I wish you ordered your wives to cover themselves from the men because good and bad ones talk to them." So the verse of the veiling of the women was revealed. 3. Once the wives of the Prophet made a united front against the Prophet and I said to them, "It may be if he (the Prophet) divorced you, (all) that his Lord (Allah) will give him instead of you wives better than you." So this verse (the same as I had said) was revealed. (66.5). (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 8, Number 395:

sbt.html#001.008.395)And:Narrated Anas: Umar said, "I agreed with Allah in three things," or said, "My Lord agreed with me in three things. I said, ‘O Allah's Apostle! Would that you took the station of Abraham as a place of prayer.’ I also said, ‘O Allah's Apostle! Good and bad persons visit you! Would that you ordered the Mothers of the believers to cover themselves with veils.’ So the Divine Verses of Al-Hijab (i.e. veiling of the women) were revealed. I came to know that the Prophet had blamed some of his wives so I entered upon them and said, ‘You should either stop (troubling the Prophet) or else Allah will give His Apostle better wives than you.’ When I came to one of his wives, she said to me, ‘O ‘Umar! Does Allah’s Apostle haven't[sic] what he could advise his wives with, that you try to advise them?’" Thereupon Allah revealed:-- "It may be, if he divorced you (all) his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you Muslims (who submit to Allah)…" (66.5) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 10:

sbt.html#006.060.010) The audacity of Umar to boast that Allah actually agreed with him! Finally: Narrated 'Aisha (the wife of the Prophet): 'Umar bin Al-Khattab used to say to Allah's Apostle, "Let your wives be veiled." But he did not do so. The wives of the Prophet used to go out to answer the call of nature at night only at Al-Manasi.' Once Sauda, the daughter of Zam'a went out and she was a tall woman. 'Umar bin Al-Khattab saw her while he was in a gathering, and said, "I have recognized you, O Sauda!" He ('Umar) said so as he was anxious for some Divine orders regarding the veil (the veiling of women.) So Allah revealed the Verse of veiling. (Al-Hijab; a complete body cover excluding the eyes). (See Hadith No. 148, Vol. 1) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 74, Number 257:

#008.074.257)Clearly, the words of Umar have found their way into the Quran, which Muslims claim is the eternal, uncreated speech of Allah (! Even more intriguing is that Umar’s corrections to Muhammad were also included in the Quran!It is not for any Prophet to have prisoners until he make wide slaughter in the land. You desire the chance goods of the present world, and God desires the world to come; and God is All-mighty, All-wise. S. 8:67 ArberryAnd never (O Muhammad) pray for one of them who dieth, nor stand by his grave. Lo! they disbelieved in Allah and His messenger, and they died while they were evil-doers. S. 9:84 PickthallIbn Kathir noted in reference to Q. 9:84 that:The Prohibition of Prayer for the Funeral of HypocritesAllah commands His Messenger to disown the hypocrites, to abstain from praying the funeral prayer when any of them dies, from standing next to his grave to seek Allah's forgiveness for him, or to invoke Allah for his benefit. This is because hypocrites disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger and died as such. This ruling applies to all those who are known to be hypocrites, even though it was revealed about the specific case of `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, the chief hypocrite. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "When `Abdullah bin Ubayy died, his son, `Abdullah bin `Abdullah, came to the Messenger of Allah and asked him to give him his shirt to shroud his father in, and the Messenger did that. He also asked that the Prophet offer his father's funeral prayer, and Allah's Messenger stood up to offer the funeral prayer. `Umar took hold of the Prophet's robe and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Are you going to offer his funeral prayer even though your Lord has forbidden you to do so?' Allah's Messenger said…<<I have been given the choice, for Allah says…<Whether you ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites), or do not ask for forgiveness for them. Even though you ask for their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them.> …<<Verily, I will ask [for forgiveness for him] more than seventy times>>.’ `Umar said, `He is a hypocrite!’ So Allah's Messenger offered the funeral prayer and on that Allah revealed this Verse…<And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave.>" `Umar bin Al-Khattab narrated a similar narration. In this narration, `Umar said, "The Prophet offered his funeral prayer, walked with the funeral procession and stood on his grave until he was buried. I was amazed at my daring to talk like this to the Messenger of Allah, while Allah and His Messenger have better knowledge. By Allah, soon afterwards, these two Ayat were revealed…<And never (O Muhammad ) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies.> Ever since this revelation came, the Prophet never offered the funeral prayer for any hypocrite nor stood on his grave until Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, brought death to him.’" At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith in his Tafsir [section of his Sunan] and said, "Hasan Sahih". Al-Bukhari also recorded it. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir: confirms the foregoing narrative:Narrated Umar bin Al-Khattab: When 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul died, Allah's Apostle was called in order to offer the funeral prayer for him. When Allah's Apostle got up (to offer the prayer) I jumped towards him and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do you offer the prayer for Ibn Ubai although he said so-and-so on such-and-such-a day?" I went on mentioning his sayings. Allah's Apostle smiled and said, "Keep away from me, O 'Umar!" But when I spoke too much to him, he said, "I have been given the choice, and I have chosen (this); and if I knew that if I asked forgiveness for him more than seventy times, he would be for given, I would ask it for more times than that." So Allah's Apostle offered the funeral prayer for him and then left, but he did not stay long before the two Verses of Surat-Bara'a were revealed, i.e.:-- ‘And never (O Muhammad) pray for anyone of them that dies.... and died in a state of rebellion.’ (9.84) Later I was astonished at my daring to speak like that to Allah's Apostle and Allah and His Apostle know best. (Sahih a-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 193:

html#006.060.193)Narrated Ibn Umar: When Abdullah bin Ubai died, his son 'Abdullah bin 'Abdullah came to Allah's Apostle who gave his shirt to him and ordered him to shroud his father in it. Then he stood up to offer the funeral prayer for the deceased, but 'Umar bin Al-Khattab took hold of his garment and said, "Do you offer the funeral prayer for him though he was a hypocrite and Allah has forbidden you to ask forgiveness for hypocrites?" The Prophet said, "Allah has given me the choice (or Allah has informed me) saying: ‘Whether you, O Muhammad, ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them, even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them,’ (9.80)" The he added, "I will (appeal to Allah for his sake) more than seventy times." So Allah's Apostle offered the funeral prayer for him and we too, offered the prayer along with him. Then Allah revealed: "And never, O Muhammad, pray (funeral prayer) for anyone of them that dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allah and His Apostle and died in a state of rebellion." (9.84) (Sahih a-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 194:

html#006.060.194)Here is what Ibn Kathir wrote regarding Q. 8:67:Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, "The Prophet asked the people for their opinion about the prisoners of war of Badr, saying…<<Allah has made you prevail above them.>> `Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Cut off their necks,' but the Prophet turned away from him. The Messenger of Allah again asked…<<O people! Allah has made you prevail over them, and only yesterday, they were your brothers.>> `Umar again stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Cut off their necks.' The Prophet ignored him and asked the same question again and he repeated the same answer. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! I think you should pardon them and set them free in return for ransom.' Thereupon the grief on the face of Allah's Messenger vanished. He pardoned them and accepted ransom for their release. Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, revealed this verse…<Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took>." (Tafsir Ibn Kathir: late Muslim scholar Martin Lings provides some background material which helps to show how Umar was instrumental in the composition of Q. 8:67:Since Quraysh so greatly outnumbered the believers, the possibility of their rallying and returning to the fight had still to be considered, and the Prophet was persuaded to withdraw to his shelter with Abu Bakr while some of the Helpers kept watch. Sa‘d ibn Muadh was standing on guard at the entrance with drawn sword, and when his fellow warriors started to bring their captives into the camp the Prophet was struck by the expression of strong disapproval on his face. "Sa‘d," he said, "it would seem that what they are doing is hateful in thine eyes." Sa‘d vigorously assented; then he added: "This is the first defeat God hath inflicted on the idolaters; and I had rather see their men slaughtered than left alive." ‘Umar was of the same opinion, but Abu Bakr was in favour of letting the captives live, in the hope that sooner or later they might become believers, and the Prophet inclined to his view. But later in the day, when ‘Umar returned to the shelter, he found the Prophet and Abu Bakr in tears on account of a Revelation which had come: It is not for a prophet to hold captives until he hath made great slaughter in the land. Ye would have for yourselves the gains of this world and God would have for you the Hereafter, and God is Mighty, Wise. But the Revelation had made it clear that the decision to spare the captives had been accepted by God and should not now be revoked; and the Prophet was given a message for the captives themselves: O Prophet, say unto those captives who are in your hands: If God knoweth any good in your hearts, He will give you better than that which hath been taken from you, and He will forgive you. (Lings, Muhammad: his life based on the earliest source [Inner Traditions International, Ltd., Rochester, Vermont 1983], p. 149; bold and underline emphasis ours)Here is another version of the events:Captives of BadrAbout the fate of the captives of Badr, Abu Bakr and Umar held contrary views. Abu Bakr took the lenient view, while Umar took the sterner view. After taking into consideration both the views, the Holy Prophet said: "Almighty God softens the hearts of some people-softer than milk. And He hardens the hearts of some people-harder than stone." Turning to Abu Bakr who had counselled a lenient view, the Holy Prophet said: "Abu Bakr you are like Abraham who said, 'He who follows me is one of us, and he who disobeys me, then O God, You are gracious enough to forgive'. And Abu Bakr you are also like Jesus who said, 'If you punish them they are Your servants, and if You forgive them, You are All Powerful, Mighty and Wise." Turning to Umar, the Holy Prophet said: Umar, you are like Noah who said, 'O God, do not leave on the earth a single unbeliever.' And Umar you are also like Moses who said, 'O God destroy their properties and harden their hearts so that they are not converted till they have suffered punishment." The Holy Prophet accepted the advice of Abu Bakr and acted accordingly. The following day, Umar visited the Holy Prophet, and saw that both the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr were weeping. Umar addressing the Holy Prophet said: "What is it that makes you weep? Tell me, so that if there is any matter to be grieved over, I may also weep with you." The Holy Prophet said: "Umar, there is nothing for you to be grieved over. On the other hand you should rejoice that God has upheld the view that you had taken about the captives of Badr, and admonished those who had taken a contrary view." Umar's curiosity was awakened and he wanted know what exactly was the revelation. The Holy Prophet recited the verses that had been revealed: "It is not fitting for an Apostle
That he should have prisoners of war,
Until he has thoroughly subdued the land.
Ye look on the temporal goods of this world,
But God looks to the Hereafter,
And God is Exalted, Mighty, and Wise." (8:67) (Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab, Battle of Badr:

.htm; bold and underline emphasis ours)It seems that in these instances Umar was more inspired than Muhammad!In light of the foregoing it comes as no surprise that Muhammad claimed that Umar had the potential of being a prophet:‘Ali: So what is stopping you from asking ‘Umar to make du’a for you? Do you know, Ibn Qurt, that his du’a is never rejected and always reaches Allah and that Rasulullah said in his regard: "Were there to be another prophet after me it would have been ‘Umar." Is he not that man whose decisions corresponded to that of the Quran until Rasulullah said, "Were punishment to fall from the sky to Earth, none would escape it except ‘Umar bin al-Khattab."Do you not know that Allah revealed clear verses about him? Is he not ascetic, pious and always engaged in worship? Does he not greatly resemble the prophet Nuh? Should he offer du’a on your behalf it would be answered. (Al-Imam al-Waqidi, The Islamic Conquest of Syria, A Translation of Futuhusham: The Inspiring History of the Sahabah’s Conquest of Syria, translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi [Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., London 2005], Part 3: Al-Yarmuk, pp. 287-288; bold and italic emphasis ours)Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Amongst the people preceding you there used to be 'Muhaddithun' (i.e. persons who can guess things that come true later on, as if those persons have been inspired by a divine power), and if there are any such persons amongst my followers, it is 'Umar bin Al-Khattab." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 675:

html#004.056.675)The problem with Muhammad’s statement is that Umar couldn’t have simply been a person who came close to being inspired or a prophet, but must have been an inspired prophet in order to influence Allah to insert his words into the Quran. Otherwise, we must assume that an uninspired man caused Allah to include, in fact plagiarize, words which did not originate from a divine source! _______________________________________

______________________________________ Umar wasn’t the only person inspired by Allah to recite revelations, but Muhammad had another companion who received inspiration as well. Hassan ibn Thabit was Muhammad’s companion and poet who would recite poetry lampooning the unbelievers. What makes this rather astonishing is that Muhammad believed that the Holy Spirit and Gabriel inspired Hassan to write these poems:Narrated Abu Salama bin 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf:
that he heard Hassan bin Thabit Al-Ansari asking the witness of Abu Huraira, saying, "O Abu Huraira! I beseech you by Allah (to tell me). Did you hear Allah's Apostle saying ‘O Hassan! Reply on behalf of Allah's Apostle. O Allah! Support him (Hassan) with the Holy Spirit!’?" Abu Huraira said, "Yes." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 173:

html#008.073.173)Narrated Al-Bara:
The Prophet said to Hassan, "Lampoon them (the pagans) in verse, and Gabriel is with you." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 174:


073.sbt.html#008.073.174; see also Volume 1, Book 8, Number 444, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 434-435, and Volume 5, Book 59, Number 449)Al-Bari' b. 'Azib reported: I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Hassan b. Thabit, write satire (against the non-believers); Gabriel is with you. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu'ba with the same chain of transmitters. (Sahih Muslim, Book 031, Number 6074:

html#031.6074; see also Number 6071 and 6073)Interestingly, Hassan had an encounter with a jinn which is similar to Muhammad’s encounter with the spirit who claimed to be Gabriel:But let me illustrate in detail. A good example is given in the stories told about Hassan ibn Thabit, a close personal follower of Muhammad, and, in a sense, his poet-laureate. Muhammad in general was opposed to poetry; the poets were mostly opposed to him; but Hassan upheld his cause with poetry of a kind, and was especially useful in replying to satirical and abusive attacks. But this Hassan, while still a young man in the days before Islam, and before he had made any verses, was initiated into poetry by a female Jinni. She met him in one of the streets of Medina, leapt upon him, pressed him down, and compelled him to utter three verses of poetry. Thereafter he was a poet, and his verses came to him as to other Arab poets from THE DIRECT INSPIRATION OF THE JINN. He refers himself to his "brothers of the Jinn" who weave for him artistic words, and tells how weighty lines have been sent down to him from heaven in the night season. The curious thing is that the expressions he uses ARE EXACTLY those used of the "sending down," that is, revelation, of the Qur'an. Evidently in his case there was a struggle between the idea of the Jinn - those half or wholly heathen spirits - as inspirers and the diving inspirations of the angels.Further, the story runs that Muhammad used to set up for him a pulpit in the mosque and stand by in evident enjoyment, while Hassan hurled from it stinging verses against the enemies of Islam. This was one of the few occasions on which Muhammad seems to have tolerated poetry, and his reported comment is significant, "Allah aids Hassan with the Holy Spirit so long as he is defending or boasting of the Apostle of God." But by the Holy Spirit here, you must not understand any conception like that of the third person of the Christian trinity. For Muhammad the phrase referred only to the angel messenger who brought to him his revelations. The theological consequences of the lack of the conception of the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life, in Islam were wide, but this is not the place to enter upon them. Here Muhammad simply ascribed to Hassan the same kind of inspiration that he had himself, and that is remarkable enough.Another point to observe is the close parallel between the terms used in the story of Hassan's initiation and that of the first revelation to Muhammad. Just as Hassan was thrown down by the female spirit and had verses pressed out of him, so the first utterances of prophecy were pressed from Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. And the resemblances go still farther. The angel Gabriel is spoken of as the companion (qarin) of Muhammad, just as though he were the Jinni accompanying a poet, and the same word nafatha, "blow upon", is used of an enchanter, or a Jinni inspiring a poet and of Gabriel revealing to Muhammad. It was, of course, the nightmare of Muhammad's earlier years - a fear of his own and an accusation of his enemies - that he was simply a poet possessed by a Jinni; it dictated his whole attitude to poets and poetry, and it is very plain how near the fact, the fear and accusation lay. He was in truth a poet of the old Arab type, without skill of verse, and with all his being given to the prophetic side of poetry. Add to this a strange jumble of Jewish and Christian conceptions, and you have the key to Muhammad. (Duncan B. Macdonald puts this into perspective:, The Attitude of the Semites Toward the Unseen World; Prophecy as a Semitic Phenomenon and Especially Among the Arabs,; bold emphasis ours)Now contrast this with Muhammad’s initial experience with "Gabriel":I. How the revelation to the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, began and the words of Allah, "We have revealed to you as We revealed to Nuh and the Prophets who came after him." (4:162) …3. 'A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, may Allah be pleased with her, said, "The beginning of the revelation to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took the form of the true dream. Whenever he had this kind of dream, it was clear like the break of day [and was true]. Then he was made to love retreat and used to go into retreat in the cave of Hira' where he would devote himself to the worship of Allah alone, continuing in this worship for a number of nights until he felt inclined to return to his family. He would take provision for his stay. Then he would return to Khadija to restock with provision to do the same again. This lasted until the Truth came to him while he was in the cave of Hira'. The angel came to him and said, ‘Read!’ He said, ‘I cannot read.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘He seized me and squeezed me until all the strength went out of me and then released me and said, ‘Read!’ I said, ‘I cannot read.’ Then he seized me and squeezed me a second time until all the strength when out of me and then released me. Then he seized me and squeezed me a third time and then released me, and then he said, 'Recite: In the Name of your Lord who created, created man from a blood clot. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous.’" [She went on,] "Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned with that and his heart was quaking. He came to Khadija bint Khuwaylid, may Allah be pleased with her, and said, ‘Wrap me up! Wrap me up!’ They wrapped him up until the state of terror had left him and then he told Khadija what had happened and said, 'I am afraid for myself.' Khadija said, ‘No, by Allah, Allah would never bring disgrace upon you. You maintain ties of kinship, bear people's burdens, help the destitute, give hospitality to your guests and help those who have been afflicted by calamities.’ "Khadija then went with him to Waraqa ibn Nawfal ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdu'l-‘Uzza, Khadija's cousin, who had become Christian during the Jahiliyya. He could write in Hebrew and wrote in Hebrew as much of the Gospel as Allah willed. He was an old man who had gone blind. Khadija said to him, ‘Cousin! Listen to your nephew.’ Waraqa said to him, ‘Nephew, what have you seen?' The Messenger of Alla, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him what he had seen. Waraqa said to him, ‘This is the Namus [Jibril] which Allah sent to Musa. I wish that I were still young. I wish I might still be alive when your people drive you out!’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked, ‘Will they drive me out?’ He said, ‘Yes, no man has brought anything similar to what you have brought without being treated with hostility. If I am still alive on that day, I will give you my strong support.’ Shortly after that, Waraqa died and there was a pause in the revelation." (Aisha Bewley, Sahih Collection of al-Bukhari, Chapter 1: The Beginning of the Revelation:; underline emphasis ours)For an alternate translation please consult the following:

html#001.001.003Muhammad was even accused of being majnun, which literally means "jinn-possessed":Thou art not, by the Grace of thy Lord, mad or possessed (bi-majnunin). S. 68:2 Y. AliAnd (O people) your companion (Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) is not a madman (bi-majnunin); S. 81:22 Hilali-KhanThe foregoing basically demonstrates that Hassan wasn’t merely inspired in the same way as Muhammad, but that he was being inspired by the very same entity that came to Muhammad. In other words, Hassan was just as much a prophet and messenger as Muhammad!But this means that Muhammad couldn’t have been the last inspired messenger of Allah since Hassan, who was also inspired, outlived him. And yet, by living longer than Muhammad, Hassan ends up falsifying the assertion of the Quran that the former was the prophetic seal or last prophet:Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is ever Aware of all things. S. 33:40 Pickthall This would also apply to Umar, since he too was inspired to recite Allah’s revelations and who happened to die long after Muhammad! Thus, there were at least two inspired men who outlived Muhammad, the so-called last prophet of Allah.